By precisely measuring the radiant energy emitted from Earth's surface, satellites can determine temperature at the surface-atmosphere boundary. Surface temperature influences the rate at which water evaporates, as well as wind and precipitation patterns and the formation of clouds. (Data from TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder [TOVS]) Sensor: TIROS-N/TOVS. Data Start Date: 1/1/90. Data End Date: 12/31/92.